According to a new study conducted by the University of Guelph, a compound in avocados may help in the treatment of leukaemia. The compound targets an enzyme that scientists have identified for the first time as being critical to cancer cell growth, said Dr. Paul Spagnuolo, Department of Food Science.
The research The study published in the journal Blood focused on acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), which is the most devastating form of leukaemia. Most cases occur in people over age 65, and fewer than 10 percent of patients survive five years after diagnosis. Leukaemia cells have higher amounts of an enzyme called VLCAD involved in their metabolism, said Spagnuolo.
How it helps "The cell relies on that pathway to survive," he said, explaining that the compound is a likely candidate for drug therapy. "This is the first time VLCAD has been identified as a target in any cancer." His team screened nutraceutical compounds among numerous compounds, looking for any substance that might inhibit the enzyme. "Lo and behold, the best one was derived from avocado," said Spagnuolo.
The healthy fat Earlier, his lab looked at avocatin B, a fat molecule found only in avocados, for potential use in preventing diabetes and managing obesity. Now he's eager to see it used in leukaemia patients. "VLCAD can be a good marker to identify patients suitable for this type of therapy. It can also be a marker to measure the activity of the drug," said Spagnuolo. "That sets the stage for the eventual use of this molecule in human clinical trials."
Conclusion Currently, about half of patients over 65 diagnosed with AML enter palliative care. Others undergo chemotherapy, but drug treatments are toxic and can end up killing patients. "There's been a drive to find less toxic drugs that can be used."Referring to earlier work using avocatin B for diabetes, Spagnuolo said, "We completed a human study with this as an oral supplement and have been able to show that appreciable amounts are fairly well tolerated."